[on the image: Palapa-A]
Indosat’s Palapa D satellite was launched by a Chinese Chang Zheng 3B rocket on Aug 31. The CZ-3B reached a low parking orbit, and the third stage reignited for a second burn towards geostationary transfer orbit. However, the engine shut down early leaving the Palapa D in a 217 x 21138 km x 22.4 deg orbit. The satellite on Sep 2 used its own on-board propulsion to reach the correct 216 x 35687 km x 22.2 deg transfer orbit; this maneuver will however reduce its operational life. By Sep 8 the satellite orbit was 9616 x 35670 km x 7.8 deg.
Indonesia has one of the developing world’s more extensive satellite fleets. The early Palapa satellites were owned and operated by Indonesia’s state telecom agency Perumtel, later Telkom. In 1996 a privatization move put the Palapa satellites in the hands of the Satelindo company, and in 2003 that company was absorbed by Indosat. Meanwhile, Telkom operates a new series of satellites (Telkom 1 and 2); Media Citra Indostar and Paskifik Satelite Nusantara (with its ACeS joint venture) also operate telecom satellites, and the LAPAN space agency launches sounding rockets and operates the LAPAN-TUBSAT low orbit satellite built with German assistance.
Satellite Model Operated
Palapa A1 Hughes HS-333 1976-1986
Palapa A2 Hughes HS-333 1976-1986?
Palapa B1 Hughes HS-376 1983-1995
Palapa B2 Hughes HS-376 1984 wrong orbit, recovered by Shuttle
Palapa B2P Hughes HS-376 1987-1996 Sold to Mabuhay 1996
Palapa B2R Hughes HS-376 1990-2001 refurbished, relaunched B2
Sold to Newsat 2001
Palapa B4 Hughes HS-376 1992-2005
Palapa C1 Hughes HS-601 1996-1999 Sold to HGS 1999
Palapa C2 Hughes HS-601 1996- At 113.0E
Indostar 1 Orbital Star 1 1997- At 107.5E
Telkom 1 LM A2100 1999- At 108.0E
ACES Garuda 1 LM A2100AXX 2000- At 123.0E
Telkom 2 Orbital Star 2 2005- At 118.0E
LAPAN TUBSAT TUB 2007- In 618 x 638 km x 97.8 deg orbit
Palapa D Thales SB4000B3 2009- wrong orbit